Campus Map

Gilles Thomas

Postdoctoral Scholar






M.S. General Engineering, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 2014

M.S. Mechatronic Engineering, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 2014

M.S. Mechatronic Engineering, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 2015

Ph.D. Biomedical Engineering, Universite Lyon, 2019


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Quantitative assessment of boiling histotripsy progression based on color Doppler measurements

Song, M.H., G.P.L. Thomas, V.A. Khokhlova, O.A. Sapozhnikov, M.R. Bailey, A.D. Maxwell, P.V. Yuldashev, and T.D. Khokhlova, "Quantitative assessment of boiling histotripsy progression based on color Doppler measurements," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 69, 3255-3269, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2022.3212266, 2022.

More Info

1 Dec 2022

Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a mechanical tissue liquefaction method that uses sequences of millisecond-long high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) pulses with shock fronts. The BH treatment generates bubbles that move within the sonicated volume due to acoustic radiation force. Since the velocity of the bubbles and tissue debris is expected to depend on the lesion size and liquefaction completeness, it could provide a quantitative metric of the treatment progression. In this study, the motion of bubble remnants and tissue debris immediately following BH pulses was investigated using high-pulse repetition frequency (PRF) plane-wave color Doppler ultrasound in ex vivo myocardium tissue. A 256-element 1.5 MHz spiral HIFU array with a coaxially integrated ultrasound imaging probe (ATL P4-2) produced 10 ms BH pulses to form volumetric lesions with electronic beam steering. Prior to performing volumetric BH treatments, the motion of intact myocardium tissue and anticoagulated bovine blood following isolated BH pulses was assessed as two limiting cases. In the liquid blood the velocity of BH-induced streaming at the focus reached over 200 cm/s, whereas the intact tissue was observed to move toward the HIFU array consistent with elastic rebound of tissue. Over the course of volumetric BH treatments tissue motion at the focus locations was dependent on the axial size of the forming lesion relative to the corresponding size of the HIFU focal area. For axially small lesions, the maximum velocity after the BH pulse was directed toward the HIFU transducer and monotonically increased over time from about 20–100 cm/s as liquefaction progressed, then saturated when tissue was fully liquefied. For larger lesions obtained by merging multiple smaller lesions in the axial direction, the high-speed streaming away from the HIFU transducer was observed at the point of full liquefaction. Based on these observations, the maximum directional velocity and its location along the HIFU propagation axis were proposed and evaluated as candidate metrics of BH treatment completeness.

In vivo aberration correction for transcutaneous HIFU therapy using a multielement array

Thomas, G.P.L., T.D. Khokhlova, O.A. Sapozhnikov, Y.-N. Wang, S.I. Totten, and V.A. Khokhlova, "In vivo aberration correction for transcutaneous HIFU therapy using a multielement array," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 69, 2955-2965, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2022.3200309, 2022.

More Info

1 Oct 2022

One of the challenges of transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies, especially ones relying heavily on shock formation, such as boiling histotripsy (BH), is the loss of focusing from aberration induced by the heterogeneities of the body wall. Here, a methodology to execute aberration correction in vivo is proposed. A custom BH system consisting of a 1.5-MHz phased array of 256 elements connected to a Verasonics V1 system is used in pulse/echo mode on a porcine model under general anesthesia. Estimation of the time shifts needed to correct for aberration in the liver and kidney is done by maximizing the value of the coherence factor on the acquired backscattered signals. As this process requires multiple pulse/echo sequences on a moving target to converge to a solution, tracking is also implemented to ensure that the same target is used between each iteration. The method was validated by comparing the acoustic power needed to generate a boiling bubble at one target with aberration correction and at another target within a 5-mm radius without aberration correction. Results show that the aberration correction effectively lowers the acoustic power required to reach boiling by up to 45%, confirming that it indeed restored formation of the nonlinear shock front at the focus.

Robust and durable aberrative and absorptive phantom for therapeutic ultrasound applications

Peek, A.T., G.P.L. Thomas, D.F. Leotta, P.V. Yuldashev, V.A. Khokhlova, and T.D. Khokhlova, "Robust and durable aberrative and absorptive phantom for therapeutic ultrasound applications," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 151, 3007-3018, doi:10.1121/10.0010369, 2022.

More Info

1 May 2022

Phase aberration induced by soft tissue inhomogeneities often complicates high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies by distorting the field and, previously, we designed and fabricated a bilayer gel phantom to reproducibly mimic that effect. A surface pattern containing size scales relevant to inhomogeneities of a porcine body wall was introduced between gel materials with fat- and muscle-like acoustic properties — ballistic and polyvinyl alcohol gels. Here, the phantom design was refined to achieve relevant values of ultrasound absorption and scattering and make it more robust, facilitating frequent handling and use in various experimental arrangements. The fidelity of the interfacial surface of the fabricated phantom to the design was confirmed by three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. The HIFU field distortions — displacement of the focus, enlargement of the focal region, and reduction of focal pressure — produced by the phantom were characterized using hydrophone measurements with a 1.5 MHz 256-element HIFU array and found to be similar to those induced by an ex vivo porcine body wall. A phase correction approach was used to mitigate the aberration effect on nonlinear focal waveforms and enable boiling histotripsy treatments through the phantom or body wall. The refined phantom represents a practical tool to explore HIFU therapy systems capabilities.

More Publications

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center