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Mike Bailey

Senior Principal Engineer

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Adjunct Assistant Professor, Urology

Email

bailey@apl.washington.edu

Phone

206-685-8618

Research Interests

Medical Ultrasound, Acoustic Cavitation

Biosketch

Dr. Bailey's current research focuses on the role of cavitation in lithotripsy (kidney stone treatment) and ultrasound surgery. He is the lead APL-UW researcher on two collaborative programs among the Laboratory, Indiana University, Moscow State University, and the California Institute of Technology to optimize acoustic waves to exploit bioeffects due to cavitation. Previously, he was one of the designers of a shock wave lithotripter developed at APL-UW to concentrate cavitation and damage on the kidney stone and not on the kidney tissue. Dr. Bailey joined APL-UW in 1996.

Education

B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, 1991

M.S. Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1994

Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1997

Videos

Ultrasonic tweezers: Technology to lift and steer solid objects in a living body

In a recent paper, a CIMU team describes successful experiments to manipulate a solid object within a living body with ultrasound beams transmitted through the skin.

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15 Jul 2020

A collaborative, international research teams developed and tuned an ultrasound transducer to create vortex shaped beams that can trap, grab, levitate, and move in three dimensions mm-scale objects. The team is working to apply this technology to their all-in-one kidney stone treatment system that, in clinical trials, uses ultrasound to non-invasively break, erode, and move stones and stone fragments out of the kidney so that they may pass naturally from the body.

Mechanical Tissue Ablation with Focused Ultrasound

An experimental noninvasive surgery method uses nonlinear ultrasound pulses to liquefy tissue at remote target sites within a small focal region without damaging intervening tissues. A multi-institution, international team led by CIMU researchers is applying the method to the focal treatment of prostate tumors.

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19 Mar 2020

Boiling histotripsy utilizes sequences of millisecond-duration HIFU pulses with high-amplitude shocks that form at the focus by nonlinear propagation effects. Due to strong attenuation of the ultrasound energy at the shocks, these nonlinear waves rapidly heat tissue and generate millimeter-sized boiling bubbles at the focus within each pulse. Then the further interaction of subsequent shocks with the vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration into subcellular debris through the acoustic atomization mechanism.

The method was proposed at APL-UW in collaboration with Moscow State University (Russia) and now is being evaluated for various clinical applications. It has particular promise because of its important clinical advantages: the treatment of tissue volumes can be accelerated while sparing adjacent structures and not injuring intervening tissues; it generates precisely controlled mechanical lesions with sharp margins; the method can be implemented in existing clinical systems; and it can be used with real-time ultrasound imaging for targeting, guidance, and evaluation of outcomes. In addition, compared to thermal ablation, BH may lead to faster resorption of the liquefied lesion contents.

Characterizing Medical Ultrasound Sources and Fields

For every medical ultrasound transducer it's important to characterize the field it creates, whether for safety of imaging or efficacy of therapy. CIMU researchers measure a 2D acoustic pressure distribution in the beam emanating from the source transducer and then reconstruct mathematically the exact field on the surface of the transducer and in the entire 3D space.

11 Sep 2017

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Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

First in-human burst wave lithotripsy for kidney stone comminution: Initial two case studies

Harper, J.D., I. Metzler, M.K. Hall, T.T. Chen, A.D. Maxwell, B.W. Cunitz, B. Dunmire, J. Thiel, J.C. Williams, M.R. Bailey, and M.D. Sorensen, "First in-human burst wave lithotripsy for kidney stone comminution: Initial two case studies," J. Endourol., 35, 506-511, doi:10.1089/end.2020.0725, 2021.

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1 Apr 2021

Purpose: To test the effectiveness (Participant A) and tolerability (Participant B) of urinary stone comminution in the first in-human trial of a new technology, burst wave lithotripsy (BWL).

Materials and Methods: An investigational BWL and ultrasonic propulsion system was used to target a 7-mm kidney stone in the operating room before ureteroscopy (Participant A). The same system was used to target a 7.5 mm ureterovesical junction stone in clinic without anesthesia (Participant B).

Results: For Participant A, a ureteroscope inserted after 9 minutes of BWL observed fragmentation of the stone to < 2 mm fragments. Participant B tolerated the procedure without pain from BWL, required no anesthesia, and passed the stone on day 15.

Conclusions: The first in-human tests of BWL pulses were successful in that a renal stone was comminuted in < 10 minutes, and BWL was also tolerated by an awake subject for a distal ureteral stone.

In vitro evaluation of urinary stone comminution with a clinical burst wave lithotripsy system

Ramesh, S., T.T. Chen, A.D. Maxwell, B.W. Cunitz, B. Dunmire, J. Thiel, J.C. Williams, A. Gardner, Z. Liu, I. Metzler, J.D. Harper, M.D. Sorensen, and M.R. Bailey, "In vitro evaluation of urinary stone comminution with a clinical burst wave lithotripsy system," J. Endourol., 34, 1167-1173, doi:10.1089/end.2019.0873, 2020.

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1 Nov 2020

Objective: Our goals were to validate stone comminution with an investigational burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) system in patient-relevant conditions and to evaluate the use of ultrasonic propulsion to move a stone or fragments to aid in observing the treatment endpoint.

Materials and Methods: The Propulse-1 system, used in clinical trials of ultrasonic propulsion and upgraded for BWL trials, was used to fragment 46 human stones (5–7 mm) in either a 15-mm or 4-mm diameter calix phantom in water at either 50% or 75% dissolved oxygen level. Stones were paired by size and composition, and exposed to 20-cycle, 390-kHz bursts at 6-MPa peak negative pressure (PNP) and 13-Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or 7-MPa PNP and 6.5-Hz PRF. Stones were exposed in 5-minute increments and sieved, with fragments >2 mm weighed and returned for additional treatment. Effectiveness for pairs of conditions was compared statistically within a framework of survival data analysis for interval censored data. Three reviewers blinded to the experimental conditions scored ultrasound imaging videos for degree of fragmentation based on stone response to ultrasonic propulsion.

Results: Overall, 89% (41/46) and 70% (32/46) of human stones were fully comminuted within 30 and 10 minutes, respectively. Fragments remained after 30 minutes in 4% (1/28) of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones and 40% (4/10) of brushite stones. There were no statistically significant differences in comminution time between the two output settings (p = 0.44), the two dissolved oxygen levels (p = 0.65), or the two calyx diameters (p = 0.58). Inter-rater correlation on endpoint detection was substantial (Fleiss' kappa = 0.638, p < 0.0001), with individual reviewer sensitivities of 95%, 86%, and 100%.

Conclusions: Eighty-nine percent of human stones were comminuted with a clinical BWL system within 30 minutes under conditions intended to reflect conditions in vivo. The results demonstrate the advantage of using ultrasonic propulsion to disperse fragments when making a visual determination of breakage endpoint from the real-time ultrasound image.

Noninvasive acoustic manipulation of objects in a living body

Ghanem, M.A., A.D. Maxwell, Y.-N. Wang, B.W. Cunitz, V.A. Khokhlova, O.A. Sopozhnikov, and M.R. Bailey, "Noninvasive acoustic manipulation of objects in a living body," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 117, 16,848-16,855, doi:10.1073/pnas.2001779117, 2020.

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21 Jul 2020

In certain medical applications, transmitting an ultrasound beam through the skin to manipulate a solid object within the human body would be beneficial. Such applications include, for example, controlling an ingestible camera or expelling a kidney stone. In this paper, ultrasound beams of specific shapes were designed by numerical modeling and produced using a phased array. These beams were shown to levitate and electronically steer solid objects (3-mm-diameter glass spheres), along preprogrammed paths, in a water bath, and in the urinary bladders of live pigs. Deviation from the intended path was on average <10%. No injury was found on the bladder wall or intervening tissue.

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In The News

Ultrasound tweezers could help remove kidney stones without surgery

New Scientist, Clare Wilson

Beams of ultrasound could be used to remove kidney stones by steering them through the body.

6 Jul 2020

UW researchers and Florida middle school students form unusual bond over cosmic kidney stones

GeekWire, Kellie Schmitt

Eight students from a low-income sugarcane town in South Florida spent months on a robotics project tackling kidney stones in space. Across the country, researchers at the University of Washington were studying the exact problem for NASA, embarking on clinical trials that, so far, are proving successful. The disparate groups converged this month when the students reached out to APL-UW scientists.

23 Feb 2019

The mobile ultrasound revolution: How technology is expanding this medical tool to new frontiers

GeekWire, Kellie Schmitt

Decades after Seattle led the way in portable ultrasound development, the technology has made the leap to sleek, handheld devices that can connect to a smartphone. Increasingly, researchers say, ultrasound technology will be used not just for imaging but for actual treatment of disease.

23 Jan 2019

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Inventions

Lithotripsy That Tunes the Frequency to the Stone Size

Record of Invention Number: 49262

Mike Bailey, Adam Maxwell, Oleg Sapozhnikov

Disclosure

12 May 2021

Transvaginal or Transrectal Probe for Ureter Stone Lithotripsy

Record of Invention Number: 49263

Mike Bailey, Barbrina Dunmire, Jeff Thiel

Disclosure

12 May 2021

Method and System for MRI-based Targeting, Monitoring, and Quantification of Thermal and Mechanical Bioeffects in Tissue Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

Example embodiments of system and method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for planning, real-time monitoring, control, and post-treatment assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) mechanical fractionation of biological material are disclosed. An adapted form of HIFU, referred to as "boiling histotripsy" (BH), can be used to cause mechanical fractionation of biological material. In contrast to conventional HIFU, which cause pure thermal ablation, BH can generate therapeutic destruction of biological tissue with a degree of control and precision that allows the process to be accurately measured and monitored in real-time as well as the outcome of the treatment can be evaluated using a variety of MRI techniques. Real-time monitoring also allow for real-time control of BH.

Patent Number: 10,694,974

Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang, Mike Bailey

Patent

30 Jun 2020

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
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