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Oleg Sapozhnikov

Senior Principal Engineer






M.S. Physics, Moscow State University, 1985

Ph.D. Acoustics, Moscow State University, 1988


Ultrasonic tweezers: Technology to lift and steer solid objects in a living body

In a recent paper, a CIMU team describes successful experiments to manipulate a solid object within a living body with ultrasound beams transmitted through the skin.

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15 Jul 2020

A collaborative, international research teams developed and tuned an ultrasound transducer to create vortex shaped beams that can trap, grab, levitate, and move in three dimensions mm-scale objects. The team is working to apply this technology to their all-in-one kidney stone treatment system that, in clinical trials, uses ultrasound to non-invasively break, erode, and move stones and stone fragments out of the kidney so that they may pass naturally from the body.

Mechanical Tissue Ablation with Focused Ultrasound

An experimental noninvasive surgery method uses nonlinear ultrasound pulses to liquefy tissue at remote target sites within a small focal region without damaging intervening tissues. A multi-institution, international team led by CIMU researchers is applying the method to the focal treatment of prostate tumors.

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19 Mar 2020

Boiling histotripsy utilizes sequences of millisecond-duration HIFU pulses with high-amplitude shocks that form at the focus by nonlinear propagation effects. Due to strong attenuation of the ultrasound energy at the shocks, these nonlinear waves rapidly heat tissue and generate millimeter-sized boiling bubbles at the focus within each pulse. Then the further interaction of subsequent shocks with the vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration into subcellular debris through the acoustic atomization mechanism.

The method was proposed at APL-UW in collaboration with Moscow State University (Russia) and now is being evaluated for various clinical applications. It has particular promise because of its important clinical advantages: the treatment of tissue volumes can be accelerated while sparing adjacent structures and not injuring intervening tissues; it generates precisely controlled mechanical lesions with sharp margins; the method can be implemented in existing clinical systems; and it can be used with real-time ultrasound imaging for targeting, guidance, and evaluation of outcomes. In addition, compared to thermal ablation, BH may lead to faster resorption of the liquefied lesion contents.

Characterizing Medical Ultrasound Sources and Fields

For every medical ultrasound transducer it's important to characterize the field it creates, whether for safety of imaging or efficacy of therapy. CIMU researchers measure a 2D acoustic pressure distribution in the beam emanating from the source transducer and then reconstruct mathematically the exact field on the surface of the transducer and in the entire 3D space.

11 Sep 2017

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2000-present and while at APL-UW

A review on B/A measurement methods with a clinical perspective

Panfilova, A., R.J.G. van Sloun, H. Wijkstra, O.A. Sapozhnikov, and M. Mischi, "A review on B/A measurement methods with a clinical perspective," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 149, doi:10.1121/10.0003627, 2021.

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2 Apr 2021

The nonlinear parameter of ultrasound B/A has shown to be a useful diagnostic parameter, reflecting medium content, structure, and temperature. Despite its recognized values, B/A is not yet used as a diagnostic tool in the clinic due to the limitations of current measurement and imaging techniques. This review presents an extensive and comprehensive overview of the techniques developed for B/A measurement of liquid and liquid-like media (e.g., tissue), identifying the methods that are most promising from a clinical perspective. This work summarizes the progress made in the field and the typical challenges on the way to B/A estimation. Limitations and problems with the current techniques are identified, suggesting directions that may lead to further improvement. Since the basic theory of the physics behind the measurement strategies is presented, it is also suited for a reader who is new to nonlinear ultrasound.

Phase-aberration correction for HIFU therapy using a multielement array and backscattering of nonlinear pulses

Thomas, G.P.L., T.D. Khokhlova, C.R. Bawiec, A.T. Peek, O.A. Sapozhnikov, M. O'Donnell, and V.A. Khokhlova, "Phase-aberration correction for HIFU therapy using a multielement array and backscattering of nonlinear pulses," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 68, 1040-1050, doi:0.1109/TUFFC.2020.3030890, 2021.

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1 Apr 2021

Phase aberrations induced by heterogeneities in body wall tissues introduce a shift and broadening of the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focus, associated with decreased focal intensity. This effect is particularly detrimental for HIFU therapies that rely on shock front formation at the focus, such as boiling histotripsy (BH). In this article, an aberration correction method based on the backscattering of nonlinear ultrasound pulses from the focus is proposed and evaluated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A custom BH system comprising a 1.5-MHz 256-element array connected to a Verasonics V1 engine was used as a pulse/echo probe. Pulse inversion imaging was implemented to visualize the second harmonic of the backscattered signal from the focus inside a phantom when propagating through an aberrating layer. Phase correction for each array element was derived from an aberration-correction method for ultrasound imaging that combines both the beamsum and the nearest neighbor correlation method and adapted it to the unique configuration of the array. The results were confirmed by replacing the target tissue with a fiber-optic hydrophone. Comparing the shock amplitude before and after phase-aberration correction showed that the majority of losses due to tissue heterogeneity were compensated, enabling fully developed shocks to be generated while focusing through aberrating layers. The feasibility of using a HIFU phased-array transducer as a pulse-echo probe in harmonic imaging mode to correct for phase aberrations was demonstrated.

Holographic extraction of plane waves from an ultrasound beam for acoustic characterization of an absorbing layer of finite dimensions

Nikolaev, D.A., S.A. Tsysar, V.A. Khokhlova, W. Kreider, and O. Sapozhnikov, "Holographic extraction of plane waves from an ultrasound beam for acoustic characterization of an absorbing layer of finite dimensions," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 149, 386-404, doi:10.1121/10.0003212, 2021.

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1 Jan 2021

For the acoustic characterization of materials, a method is proposed for interpreting experiments with finite-sized transducers and test samples in terms of the idealized situation in which plane waves are transmitted through an infinite plane-parallel layer. The method uses acoustic holography, which experimentally provides complete knowledge of the wave field by recording pressure waveforms at points on a surface intersected by the acoustic beam. The measured hologram makes it possible to calculate the angular spectrum of the beam to decompose the field into a superposition of plane waves propagating in different directions. Because these waves cancel one another outside the beam, the idealized geometry of an infinite layer can be represented by a sample of finite size if its lateral dimensions exceed the width of the acoustic beam. The proposed method relies on holograms that represent the acoustic beam with and without the test sample in the transmission path. The method is described theoretically, and its capabilities are demonstrated experimentally for silicone rubber samples by measuring their frequency-dependent phase velocities and absorption coefficients in the megahertz frequency range.

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Methods for Separating, Concentrating, and/or Differentiating Between Cells from a Cell Sample

Patent Number: 10,794,827

Tom Matula, Oleg Sapozhnikov, Brian MacConaghy

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6 Oct 2020

Embodiments are generally related to differentiating and/or separating portions of a sample that are of interest from the remainder of the sample. Embodiments may be directed towards separating cells of interest from a cell sample. In some embodiments, acoustic impedances of the cells of interest may be modified. For example, the acoustic properties of the cells of interest may be modified by attaching bubbles to the cells of interest. The cell sample may then be subjected to an acoustic wave. The cells of interest may be differentiated and/or separated from the remainder of the sample based on relative displacements and/or volumetric changes experienced by the cells of interest in response thereto. The cells of interest may be separated using a standing wave and sorted into separate channels of a flow cell. Optionally, the cells may be interrogated by a light source and differentiated by signals generated in response thereto.

Systems and Methods for Measuring Pressure Distributions of Acoustic Beams from Ultrasound Sources

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods.

Patent Number: 10,598,773

Oleg Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Vera Khokhlova

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24 Mar 2020

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods. The receiving arrays can include elongated elements having at least one dimension, such as a length, that is larger than a width of an emitted acoustic beam and another dimension, such as a width, that is smaller than half of a characteristic wavelength of an ultrasound wave. The elongated elements can be configured to capture waveform measurements of the beam based on a characteristic of the emitted acoustic beam as the acoustic beam crosses a plane of the array, such as a transverse plane. The methods include measuring at least one characteristic of an ultrasound source using an array-based acoustic holography system and defining a measured hologram at the array surface based, at least in part, on the waveform measurements. The measured hologram can be processed to reconstruct a characteristic of the ultrasound source. The ultrasound source can be calibrated and/or re-calibrated based on the characteristic.

Noninvasive Fragmentation of Urinary Tract Stones with Focused Ultrasound

Patent Number: 10,251,657

Adam Maxwell, Mike Bailey, Bryan Cunitz, Wayne Kreider, Oleg Sapozhnikov

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9 Apr 2019

Methods, computing devices, and a computer-readable medium are described herein related to fragmenting or comminuting an object in a subject using a burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) waveform. A computing device, such a computing device coupled to a transducer, may carry out functions for producing a BWL waveform. The computing device may determine a burst frequency for a number of bursts in the BWL waveform, where the number of bursts includes a number of cycles. Further, the computing device may determine a cycle frequency for the number of cycles. Yet further, the computing device may determine a pressure amplitude for the BWL waveform, where the pressure amplitude is less than or equal to 8 MPa. In addition, the computing device may determine a time period for producing the BWL waveform.

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center