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Wayne Kreider

Senior Engineer






Bachelor of Science Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1993

Master of Science Engineering Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1995

Doctor of Philosophy Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2008


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Design and characterization of an ultrasound transducer for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy

Maxwell, A.D., K.J. Haworth, C.K. Holland, S.A. Hendley, W. Kreider, and K.B. Bader, "Design and characterization of an ultrasound transducer for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 69, 156-165, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3113635, 2022.

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1 Jan 2022

Chronic thrombi of the deep veins of the leg are resistant to dissolution or removal by current interventions and can act as thrombogenic sources. Histotripsy, a focused ultrasound therapy, uses the mechanical activity of bubble clouds to liquefy target tissues. In vitro experiments have shown that histotripsy enhances thrombolytic agent recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in a highly retracted clot model resistant to lytic therapy alone. Although these results are promising, further refinement of the acoustic source is necessary for in vivo studies and clinical translation. The source parameters for use in vivo were defined, and a transducer was fabricated for transcutaneous exposure of porcine and human iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) as the target. Based on the design criteria, a 1.5-MHz elliptical source with a 6-cm focal length and a focal gain of 60 was selected. The source was characterized by fiber-optic hydrophone and holography. High-speed photography showed that the cavitation cloud could be confined to dimensions smaller than the specified vessel lumen. The source was also demonstrated in vitro to create confined lesions within clots. The results support that this design offers an appropriate clinical prototype for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy.

Impact of treatment trajectory on temperature field uniformity in biological tissue irradiated by ultrasound pulses with shocks

Pestova, P.A., M.M. Karzova, P.V. Yuldashev, W. Kreider, and V.A. Khokhlova, "Impact of treatment trajectory on temperature field uniformity in biological tissue irradiated by ultrasound pulses with shocks," Acoust. Phys., 67, 250-258, doi:10.1134/S106377102103012X, 2021.

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9 Nov 2021

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments typically involve the ablation of tissue volumes comprising multiple focal sites. One aspect of treatment planning involves the definition of a sequence of ultrasound pulses and corresponding focal sites as the sonication trajectory. Here, numerical simulations of the thermal effects of different trajectories are performed for HIFU exposures delivered to an ex vivo bovine liver sample by a clinical array (Sonalleve V2 3.0T system, Profound Medical Corp., Canada). Simulations consider boiling histotripsy regime with millisecond-long pulses that include shocks. Focusing of the ultrasound beam in tissue was modeled by the Westervelt equation, and the temperature field was modeled by the bioheat equation. To explore different treatment strategies, trajectories were considered with discrete foci located along two or four concentric circles with radii from 2 to 8 mm. Two approaches for traversing these focal sites were compared: In the first approach each discrete focus was sonicated by a sequence of 15 pulses before moving to the next site in the trajectory. In the second approach, each focus was sonicated once before moving to the next site, with sonications over the whole trajectory repeated 15 times. The influence of the trajectory’s size and the pulsing strategy on the temperature field was analyzed. It is shown that the structure of the temperature field is more uniform with a longer time interval between repeated irradiation of each focus, and the optimal time interval ranges from three to six pulse repetition periods.

'HIFU Beam' A simulator for predicting axially symmetric nonlinear acoustic fields generated by focused transducers in a layered medium

Yuldashev, P.V., M.M. Karzova, W. Kreider, P.B. Rosnitskiy, O.A. Sapozhnikov, and V.A. Khokhlova, "'HIFU Beam' A simulator for predicting axially symmetric nonlinear acoustic fields generated by focused transducers in a layered medium," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 68, 2837-2852, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3074611, 2021.

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1 Sep 2021

'HIFU beam' is a freely available software tool that comprises a MATLAB toolbox combined with a user-friendly interface and binary executable compiled from FORTRAN source code ( HIFU beam . (2021). Available: http://limu.msu.ru/node/3555?language=en ). It is designed for simulating high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields generated by single-element transducers and annular arrays with propagation in flat-layered media that mimic biological tissues. Numerical models incorporated in the simulator include evolution-type equations, either the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation or one-way Westervelt equation, for radially symmetric ultrasound beams in homogeneous and layered media with thermoviscous or power-law acoustic absorption. The software uses shock-capturing methods that allow for simulating strongly nonlinear acoustic fields with high-amplitude shocks. In this article, a general description of the software is given along with three representative simulation cases of ultrasound transducers and focusing conditions typical for therapeutic applications. The examples illustrate major nonlinear wave effects in HIFU fields including shock formation. Two examples simulate propagation in water, involving a single-element source (1-MHz frequency, 100-mm diameter, 90-mm radius of curvature) and a 16-element annular array (3-MHz frequency, 48-mm diameter, and 35-mm radius of curvature). The third example mimics the scenario of a HIFU treatment in a "water-muscle-kidney" layered medium using a source typical for abdominal HIFU applications (1.2-MHz frequency, 120-mm diameter, and radius of curvature). Linear, quasi-linear, and shock-wave exposure protocols are considered. It is intended that 'HIFU beam' can be useful in teaching nonlinear acoustics; designing and characterizing high-power transducers; and developing exposure protocols for a wide range of therapeutic applications such as shock-based HIFU, boiling histotripsy, drug delivery, immunotherapy, and others.

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MRI-Feedback Control of Ultrasound Based Mechanical Fractionation of Biological Tissue

Patent Number: 11,224,356

Wayne Kreider, Vera Khokhlova

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18 Jan 2022

Disclosed herein are example embodiments of devices, systems, and methods for mechanical fractionation of biological tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feedback control. The examples may involve displaying an image representing first MRI data corresponding to biological tissue, and receiving input identifying one or more target regions of the biological tissue to be mechanically fractionated via exposure to first ultrasound waves. The examples may further involve applying the first ultrasound waves and, contemporaneous to or after applying the first ultrasound waves, acquiring second MRI data corresponding to the biological tissue. The examples may also involve determining, based on the second MRI data, one or more second parameters for applying second ultrasound waves to the biological tissue, and applying the second ultrasound waves to the biological tissue according to the one or more second parameters.

Method and System for MRI-based Targeting, Monitoring, and Quantification of Thermal and Mechanical Bioeffects in Tissue Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

Example embodiments of system and method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for planning, real-time monitoring, control, and post-treatment assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) mechanical fractionation of biological material are disclosed. An adapted form of HIFU, referred to as "boiling histotripsy" (BH), can be used to cause mechanical fractionation of biological material. In contrast to conventional HIFU, which cause pure thermal ablation, BH can generate therapeutic destruction of biological tissue with a degree of control and precision that allows the process to be accurately measured and monitored in real-time as well as the outcome of the treatment can be evaluated using a variety of MRI techniques. Real-time monitoring also allow for real-time control of BH.

Patent Number: 10,694,974

Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang, Mike Bailey


30 Jun 2020

Systems and Methods for Measuring Pressure Distributions of Acoustic Beams from Ultrasound Sources

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods.

Patent Number: 10,598,773

Oleg Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Vera Khokhlova

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24 Mar 2020

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods. The receiving arrays can include elongated elements having at least one dimension, such as a length, that is larger than a width of an emitted acoustic beam and another dimension, such as a width, that is smaller than half of a characteristic wavelength of an ultrasound wave. The elongated elements can be configured to capture waveform measurements of the beam based on a characteristic of the emitted acoustic beam as the acoustic beam crosses a plane of the array, such as a transverse plane. The methods include measuring at least one characteristic of an ultrasound source using an array-based acoustic holography system and defining a measured hologram at the array surface based, at least in part, on the waveform measurements. The measured hologram can be processed to reconstruct a characteristic of the ultrasound source. The ultrasound source can be calibrated and/or re-calibrated based on the characteristic.

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center