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Wayne Kreider

Senior Engineer






Bachelor of Science Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1993

Master of Science Engineering Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1995

Doctor of Philosophy Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2008


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Design and characterization of an ultrasound transducer for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy

Maxwell, A.D., K.J. Haworth, C.K. Holland, S.A. Hendley, W. Kreider, and K.B. Bader, "Design and characterization of an ultrasound transducer for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 69, 156-165, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3113635, 2022.

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1 Jan 2022

Chronic thrombi of the deep veins of the leg are resistant to dissolution or removal by current interventions and can act as thrombogenic sources. Histotripsy, a focused ultrasound therapy, uses the mechanical activity of bubble clouds to liquefy target tissues. In vitro experiments have shown that histotripsy enhances thrombolytic agent recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in a highly retracted clot model resistant to lytic therapy alone. Although these results are promising, further refinement of the acoustic source is necessary for in vivo studies and clinical translation. The source parameters for use in vivo were defined, and a transducer was fabricated for transcutaneous exposure of porcine and human iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) as the target. Based on the design criteria, a 1.5-MHz elliptical source with a 6-cm focal length and a focal gain of 60 was selected. The source was characterized by fiber-optic hydrophone and holography. High-speed photography showed that the cavitation cloud could be confined to dimensions smaller than the specified vessel lumen. The source was also demonstrated in vitro to create confined lesions within clots. The results support that this design offers an appropriate clinical prototype for combined histotripsy-thrombolytic therapy.

'HIFU Beam' A simulator for predicting axially symmetric nonlinear acoustic fields generated by focused transducers in a layered medium

Yuldashev, P.V., M.M. Karzova, W. Kreider, P.B. Rosnitskiy, O.A. Sapozhnikov, and V.A. Khokhlova, "'HIFU Beam' A simulator for predicting axially symmetric nonlinear acoustic fields generated by focused transducers in a layered medium," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 68, 2837-2852, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3074611, 2021.

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1 Sep 2021

'HIFU beam' is a freely available software tool that comprises a MATLAB toolbox combined with a user-friendly interface and binary executable compiled from FORTRAN source code ( HIFU beam . (2021). Available: http://limu.msu.ru/node/3555?language=en ). It is designed for simulating high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields generated by single-element transducers and annular arrays with propagation in flat-layered media that mimic biological tissues. Numerical models incorporated in the simulator include evolution-type equations, either the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation or one-way Westervelt equation, for radially symmetric ultrasound beams in homogeneous and layered media with thermoviscous or power-law acoustic absorption. The software uses shock-capturing methods that allow for simulating strongly nonlinear acoustic fields with high-amplitude shocks. In this article, a general description of the software is given along with three representative simulation cases of ultrasound transducers and focusing conditions typical for therapeutic applications. The examples illustrate major nonlinear wave effects in HIFU fields including shock formation. Two examples simulate propagation in water, involving a single-element source (1-MHz frequency, 100-mm diameter, 90-mm radius of curvature) and a 16-element annular array (3-MHz frequency, 48-mm diameter, and 35-mm radius of curvature). The third example mimics the scenario of a HIFU treatment in a "water-muscle-kidney" layered medium using a source typical for abdominal HIFU applications (1.2-MHz frequency, 120-mm diameter, and radius of curvature). Linear, quasi-linear, and shock-wave exposure protocols are considered. It is intended that 'HIFU beam' can be useful in teaching nonlinear acoustics; designing and characterizing high-power transducers; and developing exposure protocols for a wide range of therapeutic applications such as shock-based HIFU, boiling histotripsy, drug delivery, immunotherapy, and others.

Inertial cavitation behaviors induced by nonlinear focused ultrasound pulses

Bawiec, C.R., P.B. Rosnitskiy, A.T. Peek, A.D. Maxwell, W. Kreider, G.R. Ter Haar, O.A. Sapozhnikov, V.A. Khokhlova, and T.D. Khokhlova, "Inertial cavitation behaviors induced by nonlinear focused ultrasound pulses," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 68, 2884-2895, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3073347, 2021.

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1 Sep 2021

Inertial cavitation induced by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has previously been shown to successfully permeabilize tumor tissue and enhance chemotherapeutic drug uptake. In addition to HIFU frequency, peak rarefactional pressure, and pulse duration, the threshold for cavitation-induced bioeffects has recently been correlated with asymmetric distortion caused by nonlinear propagation, diffraction and formation of shocks in the focal waveform, and therefore with the transducer F-number. To connect previously observed bioeffects with bubble dynamics and their attendant physical mechanisms, the dependence of inertial cavitation behavior on shock formation was investigated in transparent agarose gel phantoms using high-speed photography and passive cavitation detection (PCD). Agarose phantoms with concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 5% were exposed to 1-ms pulses using three transducers of the same aperture but different focal distances (F-numbers of 0.77, 1.02, and 1.52). Pulses had central frequencies of 1, 1.5, or 1.9 MHz and a range of peak rarefactional pressure at the focus varying within 1–18 MPa. Three distinct categories of bubble behavior were observed as the acoustic power increased: stationary near-spherical oscillation of individual bubbles, proliferation of multiple bubbles along the pHIFU beam axis, and fanned-out proliferation toward the transducer. Proliferating bubbles were only observed under strongly nonlinear or shock-forming conditions regardless of frequency, and only where the bubbles reached a certain threshold size range. In stiffer gels with higher agarose concentrations, the same pattern of cavitation behavior was observed, but the dimensions of proliferating clouds were smaller. These observations suggest mechanisms that may be involved in bubble proliferation: enhanced growth of bubbles under shock-forming conditions, subsequent shock scattering from the gel–bubble interface, causing an increase in the repetitive tension created by the acoustic wave, and the appearance of a new growing bubble in the proximal direction. Different behaviors corresponded to specific spectral characteristics in the PCD signals: broadband noise in all cases, narrow peaks of backscattered harmonics in the case of stationary bubbles, and broadened, shifted harmonic peaks in the case of proliferating bubbles. The shift in harmonic peaks can be interpreted as a Doppler shift from targets moving at speeds of up to 2 m/s, which correspond to the observed bubble proliferation speeds.

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Method and System for MRI-based Targeting, Monitoring, and Quantification of Thermal and Mechanical Bioeffects in Tissue Induced by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

Example embodiments of system and method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for planning, real-time monitoring, control, and post-treatment assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) mechanical fractionation of biological material are disclosed. An adapted form of HIFU, referred to as "boiling histotripsy" (BH), can be used to cause mechanical fractionation of biological material. In contrast to conventional HIFU, which cause pure thermal ablation, BH can generate therapeutic destruction of biological tissue with a degree of control and precision that allows the process to be accurately measured and monitored in real-time as well as the outcome of the treatment can be evaluated using a variety of MRI techniques. Real-time monitoring also allow for real-time control of BH.

Patent Number: 10,694,974

Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang, Mike Bailey


30 Jun 2020

Systems and Methods for Measuring Pressure Distributions of Acoustic Beams from Ultrasound Sources

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods.

Patent Number: 10,598,773

Oleg Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Vera Khokhlova

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24 Mar 2020

The present technology relates generally to receiving arrays to measure a characteristic of an acoustic beam and associated systems and methods. The receiving arrays can include elongated elements having at least one dimension, such as a length, that is larger than a width of an emitted acoustic beam and another dimension, such as a width, that is smaller than half of a characteristic wavelength of an ultrasound wave. The elongated elements can be configured to capture waveform measurements of the beam based on a characteristic of the emitted acoustic beam as the acoustic beam crosses a plane of the array, such as a transverse plane. The methods include measuring at least one characteristic of an ultrasound source using an array-based acoustic holography system and defining a measured hologram at the array surface based, at least in part, on the waveform measurements. The measured hologram can be processed to reconstruct a characteristic of the ultrasound source. The ultrasound source can be calibrated and/or re-calibrated based on the characteristic.

Confinement or Movement of an Object Using Focused Ultrasound Waves to Generate an Ultrasound Intensity Well

Patent Number: 10,535,332

Adam Maxwell, Oleg Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Mike Bailey

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14 Jan 2020

A method includes transmitting a focused ultrasound wave into a medium to form (i) an ultrasound intensity well within the medium that exhibits a first range of acoustic pressure and (ii) a surrounding region of the medium that surrounds the ultrasound intensity well and exhibits a second range of acoustic pressure that exceeds the first range of acoustic pressure. The method further includes confining an object within the ultrasound intensity well. Additionally, an acoustic lens is configured to be acoustically coupled to an acoustic transducer. The acoustic lens has a varying longitudinal thickness that increases proportionally with respect to increasing azimuth angle of the acoustic lens. Another acoustic lens is configured to be acoustically coupled to an acoustic that increases proportionally with respect to increasing azimuth angle of the segment.

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center