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Yak-Nam Wang

Senior Engineer






B.S. Biomedical Materials Science & Engineering, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London, UK, 1996

Ph.D. Biomedical Materials, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London, UK, 2000


Mechanical Tissue Ablation with Focused Ultrasound

An experimental noninvasive surgery method uses nonlinear ultrasound pulses to liquefy tissue at remote target sites within a small focal region without damaging intervening tissues. A multi-institution, international team led by CIMU researchers is applying the method to the focal treatment of prostate tumors.

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19 Mar 2020

Boiling histotripsy utilizes sequences of millisecond-duration HIFU pulses with high-amplitude shocks that form at the focus by nonlinear propagation effects. Due to strong attenuation of the ultrasound energy at the shocks, these nonlinear waves rapidly heat tissue and generate millimeter-sized boiling bubbles at the focus within each pulse. Then the further interaction of subsequent shocks with the vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration into subcellular debris through the acoustic atomization mechanism.

The method was proposed at APL-UW in collaboration with Moscow State University (Russia) and now is being evaluated for various clinical applications. It has particular promise because of its important clinical advantages: the treatment of tissue volumes can be accelerated while sparing adjacent structures and not injuring intervening tissues; it generates precisely controlled mechanical lesions with sharp margins; the method can be implemented in existing clinical systems; and it can be used with real-time ultrasound imaging for targeting, guidance, and evaluation of outcomes. In addition, compared to thermal ablation, BH may lead to faster resorption of the liquefied lesion contents.

Non-invasive Treatment of Abscesses with Ultrasound

Abscesses are walled-off collections of fluid and bacteria within the body. They are common complications of surgery, trauma, and systemic infections. Typical treatment is the surgical placement of a drainage catheter to drain the abscess fluid over several days. Dr. Keith Chan and researchers at APL-UW's Center for Industrial + Medical Ultrasound are exploring how to treat abscesses non-invasively, that is, from outside the body, with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This experimental therapy could reduce pain, radiation exposure, antibiotic use, and costs for patients with abscesses. Therapeutic ultrasound could also treat abscesses too small or inaccessible for conventional drainage.

20 Jun 2016


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Noninvasive acoustic manipulation of objects in a living body

Ghanem, M.A., A.D. Maxwell, Y.-N. Wang, B.W. Cunitz, V.A. Khokhlova, O.A. Sopozhnikov, and M.R. Bailey, "Noninvasive acoustic manipulation of objects in a living body," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, EOR, doi:10.1073/pnas.2001779117, 2020.

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6 Jul 2020

In certain medical applications, transmitting an ultrasound beam through the skin to manipulate a solid object within the human body would be beneficial. Such applications include, for example, controlling an ingestible camera or expelling a kidney stone. In this paper, ultrasound beams of specific shapes were designed by numerical modeling and produced using a phased array. These beams were shown to levitate and electronically steer solid objects (3-mm-diameter glass spheres), along preprogrammed paths, in a water bath, and in the urinary bladders of live pigs. Deviation from the intended path was on average <10%. No injury was found on the bladder wall or intervening tissue.

Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for pulsed focused ultrasound treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Maloney, E., and 10 others including Y.-N. Wang, "Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for pulsed focused ultrasound treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma," World J. Gastroenterol., 26, 904-917, doi:10.3748/wjg.v26.i9.904, 2020.

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7 Mar 2020

We utilized quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods at 14 tesla in three mouse models of PDA (subcutaneous, orthotopic and transgenic - KrasLSL-G12D/+, Trp53LSL-R172H/+, Cre or "KPC") to assess immediate tumor response to pFUS treatment (VIFU 2000 Alpinion Medical Systems; 475 W peak electric power, 1 ms pulse duration, 1 Hz, duty cycle 0.1%) vs sham therapy, and correlated our results with histochemical data. These pFUS treatment parameters were previously shown to enhance tumor permeability to chemotherapeutics. T1 and T2 relaxation maps, high (126, 180, 234, 340, 549) vs low (7, 47, 81) b-value apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps, and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) maps for the amide proton spectrum (3.5 parts per million or "ppm") and the glycosaminoglycan spectrum (0.5–1.5 ppm) were generated and analyzed pre-treatment, and immediately post-treatment, using ImageJ.

Mean high-b value ADC measurements increased significantly with pFUS treatment for all models. Mean glycosaminoglycan CEST and T2 measurements decreased significantly post-treatment for the KPC group. Mean MTR and amide CEST values increased significantly for the KPC group. Hyaluronic acid focal intensities in the treated regions were significantly lower following pFUS treatment for all animal models. The magnetic resonance imaging changes observed acutely following pFUS therapy likely reflect: (1) Sequelae of variable degrees of microcapillary hemorrhage (T1, MTR and amide CEST); (2) Lower PDA glycosaminoglycan content and associated water content (glycosaminoglycan CEST, T2 and hyaluronic acid focal intensity); and (3) Improved tumor diffusivity (ADC) post pFUS treatment.

T2, glycosaminoglycan CEST, and ADC maps may provide reliable quantitation of acute pFUS treatment effects for patients with PDA.

Pilot in vivo studies on transcutaneous boiling histotripsy in porcine liver and kidney

Khokhlova, T.D., G.R. Schade, Y.-N. Wang, S.V. Buravkov, V.P. Chernikov, J.C. Simon, F. Starr, A.D. Maxwell, M.R. Bailey, W. Kreider, and V.A. Khokhlova, "Pilot in vivo studies on transcutaneous boiling histotripsy in porcine liver and kidney," Sci. Rep., 9, 20176, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56658-7, 2019.

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27 Dec 2019

Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) method for precise mechanical disintegration of target tissue using millisecond-long pulses containing shocks. BH treatments with real-time ultrasound (US) guidance allowed by BH-generated bubbles were previously demonstrated ex vivo and in vivo in exposed porcine liver and small animals. Here, the feasibility of US-guided transabdominal and partially transcostal BH ablation of kidney and liver in an acute in vivo swine model was evaluated for 6 animals. BH parameters were: 1.5 MHz frequency, 5–30 pulses of 1–10 ms duration per focus, 1% duty cycle, peak acoustic powers 0.9–3.8 kW, sonication foci spaced 1–1.5 mm apart in a rectangular grid with 5–15 mm linear dimensions. In kidneys, well-demarcated volumetric BH lesions were generated without respiratory gating and renal medulla and collecting system were more resistant to BH than cortex. The treatment was accelerated 10-fold by using shorter BH pulses of larger peak power without affecting the quality of tissue fractionation. In liver, respiratory motion and aberrations from subcutaneous fat affected the treatment but increasing the peak power provided successful lesion generation. These data indicate BH is a promising technology for transabdominal and transcostal mechanical ablation of tumors in kidney and liver.

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Histotripsy treatment of hematoma

A rapid, definitive intervention aiming at evacuation of the space-occupying hematoma would reduce pain, improve function, and avoid long term sequelae. Ultrasound is known to promote intravascular clot breakdown, as both a standalone procedure and used in conjunction with thrombolytic drugs and/or microbubbles. In-vitro and in-vivo studies have been conducted over the years, and acoustic cavitation is widely accepted as the dominant mechanism for mechanical disruption of the clot integrity and partial or complete recanalization of the vessel. Recently, a technique termed histotripsy that employs high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been demonstrated to dissolve large in vitro and in vivo vascular clots without thrombolytic drugs within 1.5-5 minutes into debris 98% of which were smaller than 5 microns. However, this approach cannot be applied to the large extravascular hematomas due to their large volume (20-50 cc's) compared to intravascular clots, which necessitates much higher thrombolysis rates to complete the treatment within clinically relevant times (.about.15-20 minutes).

Patent Number: 10,702,719

Tatiana Khokhlova, Tom Matula, Wayne Monsky, Yak-Nam Wang


7 Jul 2020

Method and system for MRI-based targeting, monitoring, and quantification of thermal and mechanical bioeffects in tissue induced by high intensity focused ultrasound

Example embodiments of system and method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for planning, real-time monitoring, control, and post-treatment assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) mechanical fractionation of biological material are disclosed. An adapted form of HIFU, referred to as "boiling histotripsy" (BH), can be used to cause mechanical fractionation of biological material. In contrast to conventional HIFU, which cause pure thermal ablation, BH can generate therapeutic destruction of biological tissue with a degree of control and precision that allows the process to be accurately measured and monitored in real-time as well as the outcome of the treatment can be evaluated using a variety of MRI techniques. Real-time monitoring also allow for real-time control of BH.

Patent Number: 10,694,974

Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang, Mike Bailey


30 Jun 2020

Audio Feedback for Improving the Accuracy of BWL Targeting

Record of Invention Number: 48254

Mike Bailey, Bryan Cunitz, Barbrina Dunmire, Christopher Hunter, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang


25 Jan 2018

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center